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Картографирование небесных тел со сдвоенной фигурой в проекциях трёхосного эллипсоида на примере бинарного ядра кометы 67P/Чурюмова–Герасименко

М.В. Нырцов, М.Э. Флейс, Д.Д. Николаева, А.В. Орендарчук

Страницы: 514-523

Аннотация. В Солнечной системе существуют небесные тела, которые образовались путем соединения ранее существовавших по отдельности космических тел. Их называют бинарными или объектами со сдвоенной фигурой. В связи с отсутствием проекций трехосного эллипсоида в ГИС-пакетах подобные тела картографируются с использованием референц-поверхности сферы несмотря на рекомендации Международного астрономического союза использовать трехосный эллипсоид. Нами предлагается методика картографирования небесных тел со сдвоенной фигурой на примере бинарного ядра кометы 67P/Чурюмова–Герасименко с учетом их специфических особенностей.

Ключевые слова: внеземная картография, комета 67P/Чурюмова–Герасименко, картографическая проекция, малое тело Солнечной системы, математическая картография, трёхосный эллипсоид, omet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, extraterrestrial cartography, map projection

Mapping of celestial bodies with bi-lobate shape in triaxial ellipsoid projections on example of binary nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

M.V. Nyrtsov, M.E. Fleis, D.D. Nikolaeva, A.V. Orendarchuk

Pages: 514-523

Summary. In the Solar system there are celestial bodies which have been formed due to collision and merging of two distinct objects. The objects are called binary objects or objects with bi-lobate shape. They consist of several parts — two lobes and a neck connecting them. The International Astronomical Union recommends using individual triaxial ellipsoid for mapping each lobe of the body. Up to this day objects with bi-lobate shape have been mapped in projections of a sphere due to the lack of triaxial ellipsoid projections. In this regard we were tasked with mapping of the nucleus of comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko in the projections of triaxial ellipsoid. In this case the data relating to the entire nucleus must be divided into three groups based on splitting of comet nuclei. Dividing celestial body of a complex shape into parts leads to blank areas or «holes» have appeared on the surface of each of them. In case of the neck of binary objects which after splitting has a shape of a cylinder. On the lobes «holes» are formed. Blank areas are known to cartographers. The lack of information about certain areas of the surface of extraterrestrial bodies is also very common. Working with «holes» similar to those that appear on the body as a result of splitting process is a new problem for cartography. Equidistant projections were chosen for mapping the lobes. It is compromise decision because they have both distortions of angles and areas. The equidistant along meridians cylindrical projection for the triaxial ellipsoid is used for mapping of the areas near equator of each of the lobes. The equidistant along meridians azimuthal projection for the triaxial ellipsoid is used for mapping the «polar» region of each of the lobes. Cassini-Soldner transverse-cylindrical projection equidistant along verticals is used for mapping of neck region.

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