Состояние оленьих пастбищ в Арктической зоне Российской Федерации, факторы их деградации и меры по улучшению ситуации
Аннотация. Рассмотрено современное состояние оленьих пастбищ в северных регионах страны: 1) динамика общей площади; 2) основные факторы, вызывающие деградацию; 3) организация системы наблюдений за нарушенными землями; 4) землеустроительная обеспеченность их использования, в том числе закрепление необходимости землеустроительных мероприятий и их предписаний в региональных законах.
Ключевые слова: земельные ресурсы, землеустройство, коренные народы, мониторинг земель, оленьи пастбища, indigenous peoples, land resources, land use planning, monitoring of land, reindeer pastures
The condition of reindeer pastures in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation, the major factors of their degradation and the measures to ease the situation
Summary. A significant part of the Northern territories of Russia is reindeer pastures (335.2 million hectares, which is 19.6% of the land fund of the country). The article analyzes the following: 1) the dynamics of the total area of reindeer pastures; 2) the factors causing the degradation of these pastures and other Northern territories; 3) the organization of the system of observations of disturbed lands in the Arctic zone; 4) land use planning measures for reindeer pastures utilization, including regional regulations on such measures. Abstract-logical, comparative-geographical, geoinformation and statistical methods are applied for this purpose. The article shows that reindeer pastures utilization is a key to preservation of traditional way of life of the indigenous peoples of the North. It is an important factor to maintain employment and support traditional culture. Reindeer breeding is also one of the important branches of the modern Northern economy. However, the area of reindeer pastures used by reindeer herders and inhabitants is reducing. This process was launched in the Soviet period and is still ongoing. Most of the pastures are not fixed to reindeer herding farm or reindeer herding communities-representatives of indigenous peoples. This leads to a violation of the pastures usage (for example, to the overgrazing of deer near the places of residence of reindeer herders). Also, their condition is deteriorating due to geological exploration, mining and other industrial development of traditional reindeer herding areas. As a result, most reindeer pastures (75%) were degraded (to one degree or another). To improve the situation the following is proposed: 1) the permanent monitoring of disturbed and degraded (and therefore potentially dangerous) lands, 2) land use planning measures for rational use of the lands and their recultivation.