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MIIGAIK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab) in 2014 became one of the winners of the Russian Science Foundation "Studies of fundamental geodetic parameters and topography of planets and satellities". The project entitled "Research of fundamental geodetic parameters and topography of planets and satellites» (№ 14-22-00197), performed at the Laboratory under the direction of Jürgen Oberst (Germany), aims to study and analyze the characteristics of the bodies of the solar system based on surveying and mapping techniques. Satellites of outer planets (Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, Saturn's moon Enceladus), Mercury, Mars, terrestrial planets' moons (Phobos and the Moon) - objects of project study.
The relevance of the project objectives due to both the need to study the fundamental characteristics of bodies in the solar system and the practical purposes of preparation of the planned Russian and international space missions: to Jupiter (Russian mission Laplace-P and the European project JUICE), to the Moon (Luna-Glob and Luna-Resurs ), to Mars (Exo-Mars), to Mercury (Bepi Colombo), as well as for the future mission to Phobos (Project Boomerang).
As a result of the project will be defined and clarified the fundamental geodetic parameters of celestial bodies (size, shape, rotation parameters) based on the created three-dimensional coordinate networks of outer planets' satellites. A variety of research facilities and solutions in the course of the project tasks, as well as the methods and approaches will ensure the accumulation of knowledge in the laboratory, which will contribute to its successful operation after the end of the project and will provide invaluable experience to students, graduate students and young employees in various areas of planetary geodesy, cartography and geomorphology.
The project proposes a comprehensive study of a number of planets and satellites on the basis of the following tasks:
1. Creation of geodetic control networks for selected Solar system bodies and modeling topography at the different levels of detail.
2. Determination of fundamental geodetic parameters based on geodetic control points catalogues (shape model and rotation, including spin axes orientation and libration).
3. Creation geospatial databases for selected planetary bodies, including cataloguing topographic objects, in particular craters and volcanic features, and creating thematic maps using GIS technologies.
4. Development of models for the meteoroid population in the Solar System, including predictions for the bombardment.
5. Thematic analysis of planetary topography, in particular, interplanetary comparison of topographic roughness and morphometric parameters of volcanic features.
GANYMEDE. We have developed original and unique techniques for semi-automatic registration of tie points in images taken at different orientation and scale, or under different illumination conditions and observation geometries, including grazing viewing angles. The developed technique was tested by creation of a new 3D geodetic control network for Ganymede, a Jovian satellite. This testing helped us to improve the technique and to enlarge its field of application in accordance with the quality of the input data. First 3D control point network for Ganymede was created. It includes more than 3000 control points determined with the RMS (root mean square error) of ±5 km which depends from image resolution. Based on the control point network and adjusted exterior orientations for Voyager-1, 2 and Galileo images, we created a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) with 80-90% coverage of Ganymede and an associated global orthomosaic with corrected image brightness.
PHOBOS. We analyzed new Mars Express images of the Martian satellite Phobos obtained between June 2013 and January 2014. The selected 23 images allowed us to introduce new control points (previously: 813, now: 857 points) into our previous Phobos control point network (Oberst J., Zubarev A., Nadezhdina I., Shishkina L., Rambaux, N. The Phobos geodetic control point network and rotation model // Planetary and Space Science, 102, 2014, pp 45-50. 10.1016/j.pss.2014.03.006), which allowed us to increase the overall accuracy of all control point coordinates and improve the stability of the entire network. We also refined the exterior orientations for all images, which allowed us to produce a new global orthomosaic with improved coverage in the South polar area, where resolution of new images is 7 m/pixel.
MERCURY. We have analyzed more than 33000 images obtained by MESSENGER spacecraft and classified them based on their resolutions and suitable stereo coverage. 7114 images with resolutions better than 20 m/pixel were selected and preliminary candidate areas for creation of DEMs.We have selected 2 regions which can be interesting for further geomorphology analyses with important results, because study of Mercury on local level were only began.
|New three-dimensional backbone of Jupiter's moon Ganymede||Installation space images of the Ganymede's surface made on the basis of new methods of different scales treatment and multi-temporal images|
|Update of the previously created Phobos backbone produced by new high-resolution data of MarsExpress spacecraft (2013-2014)||Identified areas on Mercury, having MESSENGER's data covering with suitable parameters in stereo mode for creation of digital elevation models|
GANYMEDE. We analyzed the above-mentioned catalog of 3D control points for Ganymede and studied global shape parameters for the satellite. For the first time, axes of a three-axial ellipsoidal model were determined based on 3D control point network without any pre-conditions on the satelllite's size and shape. Further tests were made to fit varieties of predicted shape models to our control point data. The results suggest that Ganymede, exposed to strong tidal and centrifugal forces, probably has adopted an equilibrium shape. We also determined upper limits for the libration amplitude (small oscillations in the otherwise uniform uniform rotation) for Ganymede. Our results are significant for the planning of ESA's upcoming JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission.
PHOBOS. We verified the results of our previous Phobos studies (Nadezhdina I.E. and Zubarev A.E. Formation of a Reference Coordinate Network as a Basis for Studying the Physical Parameters of Phobos, Solar System Research, 2014, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 269-278. ISSN 00380946) and updated parameters of Phobos shape and rotation parameters using above mentioned updated control point network obtained from new by Mars Express high resolution images. In particular, we re-determined the Phobos libration amplitude. While the new results agree with the previous data, error bounds could be reduced.
|Evaluation of Ganymede's libration parameters|
|Evaluation of the Phobos libration parameters|
Using GIS-techniques, we created spatial geodatabases to support a variety of research and cartographic tasks involving planets and satellites: Ganymede, Phobos, Mercury and the Moon.
GANYMEDE. New base maps of Ganymede, including hypsometric map and global surface map, were created. These maps will be very useful for further geomorphology studies of the Ganymede surface and cartography support of the future of ESA's upcoming JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission.
PHOBOS. The base and thematic maps of Phobos were updated using above-mentioned image data sets from Mars Express. We have prepared a layout of Phobos atlas. The atlas includes a comprehensive collection of maps and various results of analyses of this small planetary body obtained by Russian scientists, mostly based on Mars Express data.
MERCURY. Based on processing of laser altimeter data obtained by MESSENGER (MLA) and LRO (LOLA) we have created a map of topographic roughness of Mercury and a new global hypsometric map of the Moon.
THE MOON AND MARS. GIS-catalogues of volcanic features were created for Mars and the Moon. The special planetary data model, which was tested using lunar data, has been developed for storage and access to the results of our studies. Based on results of planetary mapping, we published new global wall maps of Phobos and Mercury, and also the Moon. The new maps and GIS will allow us to carry out comparative studies and analyses of the planetary surfaces.
All maps are available on the Laboratory website.
GANYMEDE MAPPING: BASEMAPS
|Relief map, created using GIS on the basis of DEM processing||Map the surface created using orthophotos|
MAPPING OF CELESTIAL BODIES: PHOBOS, MOON, MERCURY
|Layout of Phobos' surface map (basic map)||Layout of Phobos map with dynamic heights (thematic map)|
|Layout of Mercury and Moon topographic roughness maps, built using results of processing MESSENGER laser altimetry (MLA) and the LRO spacecraft (LOLA)||Layout of the Moon's hypsometric map created using results of processing LRO laser altimetry data (LOLA)|
RESULTS OF CELESTIAL BODIES' GIS FORMING
|The model of planetary data, designed to provide access to results of celestial bodies studies||Catalog of details of the Moon's volcanic relief, created using GIS technology|
MARS. A model for the flux of meteoroids in interplanetary space, in particular, near the Mars orbit is being developed. The model allows us to estimate the probability and velocity of meteoroid encounters with the atmosphere of Mars and with the surfaces of its satellites. In particular, we simulate the distributions of craters caused by meteoroid impacts on the different hemispheres of Phobos and Deimos. A new approach to meteor orbit determination is developed and realized by our "Meteor Toolkit" program. The approach is based on strict coordinate transformations and numerical orbit integrations. We have derived orbits for selected fireballs observed by video cameras using "Meteor Toolkit". An analytic model is being developed, which describes the meteoroid entry into an atmosphere. To demonstrate the performance of the model, the case of the Košice meteoroid (which fell in Slovakia in 2010 and was subsequently recovered) is used. The model predictions (e.g., residual meteorite mass) are in very good agreement with the observational data. The model under consideration can be applied to other planets of the terrestrial group, which is shown for the case of Mars, where the model parameter space (including typical encounter speeds and atmospheric structure) is quite different from Earth.
MODELING RESULTS OF METEORITE BOMBARDMENT
|Building of meteor's swarms erosion model||Simulation of meteorite's destruction in the atmosphere|
|Meteor Toolkit - interface which designed to identify and analyze orbits of meteors||Analysis of the acceleration acting on the meteoroid obtained using the Meteor Toolkit program|
MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF PARTICLES RELEASED FROM THE SURFACE OF PHOBOS UNDER DIFFERENT INITIAL CONDITIONS
|a) particle is in orbit of Mars (the length of time - 3 days)||b) particle is in orbit of Mars (the length of time - 10 years)|
|c) particle is removed from Mars (the length of time - 3 days)||d) particle is removed from Mars (the length of time - 10 years)|
MERCURY. Topographic roughness study. Data acquired by laser altimeter MLA onboard MESSENGER currently orbiting Mercury were analyzed. Adaptation of computer codes for processing of these data was carried out. The digital data products of topographic roughness were generated for the northern circumpolar area (65º-84º N) of the planet. The quantitative measure of topographic roughness used was the interquartile range of topographic profile curvature at certain baseline calculated along spacecraft orbit tracks. The calculated roughness data products were generated for three baselines, 0.7 km, 2.8 km, and 11.2 km; in addition, a color composite multi-scale image was created. The results of roughness calculations were presented with sampling spacing of 8 elements (pixels) per degree in the Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection. The digital data products of topographic roughness are now available for public access (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/test3d/#body=mercury&proj=psn&lang=ru), e.g. Color Roughness Composite spatial product: (http://cartsrv.mexlab.ru/geoportal/#body=mercury&proj=psn&raster=Roughness_composite.33836&lang=en).
The analysis of the newly generated topographic roughness maps of Mercury resulted in two new important scientific results. First, the nature of baseline dependence of the roughness contrast between smooth and rough terrains suggested that the regolith (a layer of loose particulate forming on surfaces of atmosphereless planetary bodies) on Mercury is much thicker than on the Moon, and/or its gardening and transport occurs much quicker. Second, variations of topographic roughness over the northern plains of Mercury indicated that these smooth plains are not a homogeneous volcanic plain, but rather comprise several volcanic geologic units of different emplacement ages.
THE MOON AND MARS. During the report period, an analytical review of available literature compilation of volcanic landforms on the Moon and Mars was conducted. For lunar volcanic study were suggested four classes of landforms: red-spots, dark mantle deposits (pyroclastics), volcanic domes, and rilles. For the martian volcanic study the three categories of landforms were suggested: the highland (ancient) paterae, volcanic mountains, and smaller volcanoes (tholii and small paterae). For description and characterization of the volcanic landforms on the Moon and Mars, a classification scheme was developed, which had not existed before. The scheme includes twenty primary parameters (which are received from spatial object measurements) and five derived parameters (which are derived from processing and analyses of the primary parameters).
For the adjustment of a technique of geomorphology mapping and characterization of volcanic landforms on the Moon, a detailed geological study of a region near the South Pole (70-85o S, 0-60oE) was accomplished. The research revealed 11 geomorphologic units, the majority of them different facies of impact craters. As important results was established that the study region is located on the swell surrounding the largest and, likely, oldest preserved lunar basin providing the possibility of analyzing very old material of this planet, which may introduce important constraints into models of its origin. It will be very important for the potential landing site selection for the future lunar mission.
The main scientific results obtained in 2014 in the frame of this project (No 14-22-00197 «Studies of Fundamental Geodetic Parameters and Topography of Planets and Satellites») are presented on the website of the MIIGAiK Extraterrestrial Laboratory (MExLab) and on MExLab's Geoportal.
The results are published in the following works:
Kreslavsky M.A., Head J.W., Neumann G. A., Zuber M.T., Smith D. E. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units // Geophysical Research Letters, accepted 17.11.2014
Ivanov M. A., Abdrakhimov A. M., Basilevsky A. T., Dixon J. L., Head J. W., Chick L., Vitten J., Zuber M. T., Smith D. E., Mazarico E., Neish C. D. and Bassey D. B. J. Geological Context of Potential Landing Site of the Luna-Glob Mission // Solar System Research, No. 6, Vol. 48, pp. 423–435, 2014).
PARAMETERS OF TOPOGRAPHIC DISMEMBERMENT OF MERCURY NORTHERN HEMISPHERE AND INITIAL RESULTS OF INTERPRETATION
|Dimensioning of relief dissection on the basis of 0.7 km||Dimensioning of relief dissection on the basis of 2.8 km|
|Dimensioning of relief dissection on the basis of 11 km||Color composite (multiscale) image of Mercury relief dissection|
|Display of relief's details parameters on the surface of the same area of Mercury: a) based on an assessment of the relief dissection; b) Based on Space Image (letters which represent craters: Г - Stiglitz; Ш - Gaudi)|
DESCRIPTION OF VOLCANIC OBJECTS ON THE MOON AND MARS. GEOLOGICAL MORPHOLOGICAL ZONING
The spatial distribution of volcanic formations such as the sea on the Moon. Base is global mosaic of spacecraft's wide-angle camera WAC LRO (100 m/px). Simple cylindrical projection.
The spatial distribution of the main types of volcanic formations on Mars. Base - relief washing through global DEM MOLA (resolution of 1000 m/px). Simple cylindrical projection.
Geological and morphological zoning of the southern circumpolar region area on the moon. Base - a global mosaic spacecraft wide-angle camera WAC LRO (100 m/px). Polar stereographic projection.
1. Дмитриев В.М., Луповка В.А. Метеороидное вещество астероидного происхождения в районе орбиты Марса // Известия высших учебных заведений. Геодезия и аэрофотосъемка, 2015 (принята 30.10.2014).
2. Зубарев А.Э., Надеждина И.Е., Патратий В.Д., Митрохина Л.А., Коханов А.А., Карачевцева И.П. и Оберст Ю. Создание базы геоданных изображений для оценки изученности поверхности спутника Юпитера Ганимед по данным миссий Галилео и Вояджер-1,-2 // Известия высших учебных заведений. Геодезия и аэрофотосъемка, № 6, 2014.
3. Иванов М. А., Абдрахимов А. М., Базилевский А. Т., Диксон Дж. Л., Хэд Дж. У., Чик Л., Виттен Дж., Зубер М. Т., Смит Д. Е., Мазарико Е., Нейш С. Д., Басси Д. Б. Дж. Геологический контекст потенциального места посадки Экспедиции Луна-Глоб // Астрономический вестник, том 48, № 6, с. 423–435.
4. Креславский М.А., Коханов А. А., Карачевцева И.П. Картографирование топографической шероховатости северного полушария Меркурия по данным лазерной альтиметрии миссии Мессенджер // Известия высших учебных заведений. Геодезия и аэрофотосъемка, № 6, 2014.
5. Матвеев Е.В., Карачевцева И.П., Гаров А.С., Патратий В.Д., Коханов А.А., Козлова Н.А., Лубнин Д.С. Разработка модели данных для оптимизации доступа к результатам дистанционного зондирования небесных тел Солнечной системы на примере Луны // Известия высших учебных заведений. Геодезия и аэрофотосъемка, № 6, 2014.
6. Christou A.A., Margonis A. and Oberst J. A new method for meteor photometry // Mon Not. R. Aston, Soc. (submitted on 08.12.2014).
7. Dmitriev V., Lupovka V. Asteroidal meteoroids in near-orbit of Mars// Izvestia VUZov. Geodesy and Aerophotography, 2014, submitted on 30.10.2014 (in Russian).
8. Dmitriev V., Lupovka V. and Gritsevich M. Orbit determination based on meteor observations using numerical integration of equations of motion // Planetary and Space Science, (submitted on 12.11.2014).
9. Dmitriev V., Lupovka V., Gritsevich M. A new approach to meteor orbit determination // Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference 2014, Giron, France, p. 157-159, 2014.
10. Gritsevich M., Kuznetsova D., Lupovka V., Dmitriev V., Vinnikov V., Pupyrev Yu., Peltoniemi J., Oberst J. Constraining preatmospheric parameters of large meteoroids: A case study for Košice // 2015 (submitted Dec 2014).
11. Gritsevich M., Lyytinen E., Moilanen J., Kohout T., V. Dmitriev, V. Lupovka, S. Midtskogen, N. Kruglikov, A. Ischenko, G. Yakovlev, V. Grokhovsky, J. Haloda, P. Halodova, J. Peltoniemi, A. Aikkila, A. Taavitsainen, J. Lauanne, M. Pekkola, P. Kokko, P. Lahtinen, Larionov M. First meteorite recovery based on observations by the Finnish Fireball Network // Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference 2014, Giron, France, p. 162-169, 2014.
12. Gritsevich M., Manuel Moreno-Ibanez, Josep M. Trigo-Rodrguez. New methodology to determine the terminal height of a fireball // Icarus (submitted on 21.11 2014).
13. Ivanov M.A., Hiesinger H., Abdrahimov A.M., Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W., Pasckert J-H., Bauch K., C. H. van der Bogert, Gläser P. and Kohanov A. Landing site selection for Luna-Glob mission in crater Boguslawsky // Planetary and Space Science (submitted on 01.12.2014).
14. Karachevtseva I.P., Kokhanov A.A., Rodionova J.F., Konopikhin A.A., Zubarev A.E., Nadezhdina I.E., Mitrokhina L., Patratiy V.D., Oberst J. Development of a new Phobos Atlas based on Mars Express image data // Planetary and Space Science (accepted 26.11.2014).
15. Kreslavsky M.A., Head J.W., Neumann G. A., Zuber M.T., Smith D. E. Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury: Correlation with Geologic Features and Units // Geophysical Research Letters (accepted 17.11.2014).
16. Kuznetsova D., Gritsevich M., Christou A. Identification of meteorite-producing events on Mars // 2015 (submitted Dec 2014).
17. Kuznetsova D., Gritsevich M., Vinnikov V. The Košice meteoroid investigation: from observational data to analytic model // Proceedings of the International Meteor Conference 2014, Giron, France, p. 178-181, 2014.
18. Pasewaldt A., Oberst J., Willner K., Beisembin B., Hoffmann H., Matz K. D., Roatsch T., Michael G. and Moinelo A. C. Astrometric observations of Phobos with the SRC on Mars Express: New data and comparisons of different measurement techniques // Planetary and Space Science, (submitted on 08.12.2014).
19. Stark A., Oberst J., Hussmann H. Mercury’s resonant rotation from secular orbital elements // Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (submitted on 31.08.2014).
20. Zubarev A., Nadejdina I., Oberst J. and Hussmann H. // New Ganymede Control Point Network and Global Shape Model // Geophysical Research Letters (submitted on 08.12.2014).
1. Козлова Н. А., Зубарев А. Э., Карачевцева И. П., Конопихин А. А., Коханов А. А., Надеждина И. Е., Патратий В. Д. Исследование поверхности Луны на разных уровнях деятельности с использованием геоморфологического каталога кратеров // XXXIV Пленум Геоморфологической комиссии РАН, г. Волгоград, 6-9 октября, 2014.
2. Dmitriev V., Lupovka V. and Gritsevich M. Determination of meteoroid orbits using numerical integration of equation of motion // International Meteor Conference, Giron – France, September 18 - 21, 2014. http://www.imo.net/imc2014/imc2014-dmitriev-post.pdf
3. Dmitriev V., Lupovka V., Gritsevich M., and Oberst J. Determination of meteoroid orbits from ground-based meteor observations using numerical integration of equations of motion // European Planetary Science Congress, Cascais, Portugal, 07 – 12 September 2014. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 9, EPSC2014-39, 2014.
4. Dmitriev V., Lupovka V., Gritsevich M., Oberst J. A toolkit for meteor orbit determination using numerical integration of equations of motion // The Fifth Moscow Solar System Symposium (5M-S3) IKI RAS, 13-18 October 2014 5MS3.
5. Gritsevich M., Lyytinen E., Kohout T., Moilanen J., Dmitriev V., Midtskogen S., Kruglikov N., Ishchenko A., Yakovlev G., Grokhovsky V., Haloda J., Halodova P., Lupovka V., Peltoniemi J., Madiedo J.M., Trigo‐Rodríguez J.M., Ibáñez M.M., Aikkila A., Taavitsainen A., Lauanne J., Pekkola M., Kokko P., and Lahtinen P. New meteorite recovered in northern Russia based on observations made by the Finnish Fireball Network // International Meteor Conference, Giron – France, September 18-21, 2014. http://www.imo.net/imc2014/imc2014-dmitriev_lec.pdf
6. Ivanov M.A., Hiesinger H., Abdrahimov A.M., Basilevsky A.T., Head J.W., Pasckert J-H., Bauch K., van der Bogert C. Landing site selection for Luna-Glob mission in crater Boguslawsky // The 5th Moscow Solar System Symposium, IKI RAS, Moscow, 2014, abs. 5MS3-MN-19.
7. Kokhanov A. A., Kreslavsky M. A., Oberst J., Karachevtseva I.P. Mapping and the morphometric measurements of small lunar craters // The Fifth Moscow Solar System Symposium (5M-S3) IKI RAS, 13-18 October 2014 5MS3.
8. Kreslavsky M. A., Head III J.W., Kokhanov A. A., Neumann G. A., Smith D. E., Zuber M. T. and Kozlova N. A. A Map of Kilometer-Scale Topographic Roughness of Mercury // AGU fall Meeting, San Francisco, 15-19 Desember 2014. https://agu.confex.com/agu/fm14/webprogrampreliminary/Paper14940.html
9. Kuznetsova D. and Gritsevich M. Classification of meteor events in the Martian atmosphere // The Fifth Moscow Solar System Symposium (5M-S3) IKI RAS, 13-18 October 2014 5MS3.
10. Kuznetsova D., Gritsevich M., Vinnikov V. Košice meteoroid investigation: from observational data to analytic model // International Meteor Conference, Giron – France, September 18 - 21, 2014.
11. Oberst J., Heinlein D., Gritsevich M., Lyytinen E., Flohrer J., Margonis A., Lupovka V., Dmitriev V. , Schweidler F., Peltoniemi J., and Grau T. The extraordinary grazing fireball over Central Europe on March 31 // European Planetary Science Congress, Cascais, Portugal, 07 – 12 September 2014. EPSC Abstracts Vol.9, EPSC2014-745, 2014.
12. Oberst J., Shi X., Elgner S., Willner K. Dynamic Shape and Down-Slope Directions on Phobos // The Fifth Moscow Solar System Symposium (5M-S3) IKI RAS, 13-18 October 2014 5MS3.
13. Zubarev A., Nadezhdina I., Patraty V., Karachevtseva I., Kokhanov A., Kozlova N., Oberst J. New methodology for study of the basic geodetic parameters and relief of outer planetary bodies: Galilean satellites and Enceladus // The Fifth Moscow Solar System Symposium (5M-S3) IKI RAS, 13-18 October 2014 5MS3.
This work was performed at MIIGAiK and supported by Russian Science Foundation, project 14-22-00197.